ALBANIAN CONSTITUTION - Adopted on: 29 April 1991


Chapter I General Provisions

Article 1 [Republic, Sovereignty]

Albania is a parliamentary republic. National sovereignty stems from the people and belongs to them.

Article 2 [Foundations]

(1) The Republic of Albania is a juridical and democratic state.
(2) Man's dignity, his rights and freedoms, free development of his personality as well as the constitutional order, equality before the law, social justice, and pluralism are the foundations of this state, whose duty is to observe and defend them.

Article 3 [Division of Powers, Representation, Rule of Law]

(1) The fundamental principle of state organization is the division of the legislative, executive, and judicial power.
(2) The people exercise their power through their representative organs and referendum as well.
(3) The representative organs are elected by free, general, equal, direct, and secret ballot.
(4) State activity is exercised only by the state organs recognized by law.

Article 4 [Human Rights, Minorities]

The Republic of Albania recognizes and guarantees the fundamental human rights and freedoms, those of national minorities, admitted in the international documents.

Article 5 [Powers]

(1) The legislative power belongs to the People's Assembly of the Republic of Albania.
(2) The head of the state is the president of the Republic elected by the People's Assembly.
(3) The rights and duties of the president are set by this law.
(4) The supreme organ of the executive power is the Council of Ministers.
(5) The rights and duties of the Council of Ministers are set by this law.
(6) The judicial power is exercised by courts which are independent and are guided only by law.

Article 6 [Pluralism, Political Parties]

(1) Political pluralism is one of the fundamental conditions of democracy in the Albanian state.
(2) The political parties and other organizations are created and exercise their activity according to the law. They are fully separated from the state.
(3) It is prohibited the activity of political parties in military units and institutions of the Ministry of Defense and the Minister of the Interior, the Ministry for Foreign Affairs and diplomatic representations abroad, the attorney's offices, investigation offices, courts, etc. The departization and depoliticization of organs is achieved by law.

Article 7 [Secular State, Religion]

(1) The Republic of Albania is a secular state.
(2) The state observes the freedom of religious belief and creates conditions to exercise it.

Article 8 [International Law, Equality]

(1) The legislation of the Republic of Albania considers, recognizes, and observes the principles and norms of the international law generally accepted.
(2) The strict and similar application of juridical norms is compulsory for all state organs, political parties, other organizations, employees as well as for other physical and juridical persons.
(3) All the citizens are equal to the law.

Article 9 [Foreign Relations, Albanians Abroad]

(1) Concerning the relations with foreign countries, the Republic of Albania defends the national independence and interests and pursues the policy of cooperation and good neighborliness, international peace, and security.
(2) The Republic of Albania takes care of the recognition and observation of the national and democratic rights of the Albanians residing outside the state borders of the Republic.

Article 10 [Economy]

(1) The country's economy is based on the diversity of ownership, free initiative of all economic subjects, and the regulatory role of the state.
(2) Economic initiative of juridical and physical persons cannot develop contrary to the social interest and should not impair the security, freedom, and dignity of man.

Article 11 [Property]

(1) The state, juridical, and physical persons have the right to ownership.
(2) All kinds of ownership are equally defended by law.
(3) The assets which are objects of the state property are set by law.

Article 12 [Property for Foreigners]

(1) The foreign juridical and physical persons may gain the right to ownership under the conditions foreseen and guaranteed by law.
(2) The foreign physical and juridical person are guaranteed the right to carry out independent economic activity, to invest at home, to form joint ventures and their own under the circumstances set by law. They are also guaranteed the right to transfer profits.

Article 13 [Taxation]

(1) It is compulsory for juridical and physical persons to contribute to carry the state expenditure in relation to their income.
(2) No tax or levy can be established, but by law.

Article 14 [Unions]

The trade unions recognized by law are juridical persons and may sign collective working contracts with the public or private subjects. The way of reaching contracts is defined by law.


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